And it has always been the opinion and judgment of wise men that nothing can be so uncertain or unstable as aspirazione or power not founded on its own strength

“Many speakers esatto the House the other night in the debate on the reduction of armaments seemed onesto esibizione a most lamentable ignorance of the conditions under which the British Completare maintains its existence. When Mr Balfour replied onesto the allegations that the Roman Completare sank under the weight of its military obligations, he said that this was ‘wholly unhistorical.’ He might well have added that the Roman power was at its zenith when every citizen acknowledged his liability onesto fight for the State, but that it began preciso decline as soon as this obligation was in nessun caso longer recognised.”-Pall Mall Gazette, 15th May 1906.

Francesco Sforza, through being e Duke of Milan; and the sons, through avoiding the hardships and troubles of arms, from dukes became private persons

I conclude, therefore, that no principality is secure without having its own forces; on the contrary, it is entirely dependent on good fortune, not having the valour which durante adversity would defend it. And one’s own forces are those which are composed either of subjects, citizens, or dependents; all others are mercenaries or auxiliaries. And the way preciso make ready one’s own forces will be easily found if the rules suggested by me shall be reflected upon, and if one will consider how Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, and many republics and princes have armed and organized themselves, esatto which rules I entirely commit myself.

Verso prince ought esatto have no other aim or thought, nor select anything else for his study, than war and its rules and discipline; for this is the astro art that belongs sicuro him who rules, and it is of such force that it not only upholds those who are born princes, but it often enables men preciso rise from per private station puro that rank. And, on the contrary, it is seen that when princes have thought more of ease than of arms they have lost their states. And the first log in only lads cause of your losing it is to neglect this art; and what enables you preciso acquire verso state is onesto be master of the art. For among other evils which being unarmed brings you, it causes you puro be despised, and this is one of those ignominies against which a prince ought puro guard himself, as is shown later on. Because there is nothing proportionate between the armed and the unarmed; and it is not reasonable that he who is armed should yield obedience willingly preciso him who is unarmed, or that the unarmed man should be secure among armed servants. Because, there being durante the one disdain and mediante the other suspicion, it is not possible for them to work well together. And therefore per prince who does not understand the art of war, over and above the other misfortunes already mentioned, cannot be respected by his soldiers, nor can he rely on them. He ought never, therefore, puro have out of his thoughts this subject of war, and in peace he should addict himself more esatto its exercise than durante war; this he can do in two ways, the one by action, the other by study.

As regards action, he ought above all things onesto keep his men well organized and drilled, sicuro follow incessantly the chase, by which he accustoms his body preciso hardships, and learns something of the nature of localities, and gets esatto find out how the mountains rise, how the valleys open out, how the plains lie, and sicuro understand the nature of rivers and marshes, and sopra all this to take the greatest care. Which knowledge is useful sopra two ways. Firstly, he learns puro know his country, and is better able esatto undertake its defence; afterwards, by means of the knowledge and observation of that locality, he understands with ease any other which it may be necessary for him puro study hereafter; because the hills, valleys, and plains, and rivers and marshes that are, for instance, sopra Tuscany, have verso indivis resemblance to those of other countries, so that with a knowledge of the aspect of one country one can easily arrive at verso knowledge of others. And the prince that lacks this skill lacks the essential which it is desirable that verso captain should possess, for it teaches him sicuro surprise his enemy, preciso select quarters, esatto lead armies, to array the battle, esatto besiege towns preciso advantage.